Hispanic Heritage Month
Hispanic Heritage Month is observed from September 15 to October 15. This month corresponds with Mexican Independence Day, which is celebrated on September 16, and recognizes the revolution in 1810 that ended Spanish dictatorship.
Known among her peers for her imperturbable bravery and commitment to unbiased journalism,Marguerite Higgins was the first woman to win Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting (1951) for coverage of the Korean War.
Jane Addams was the founder of Hull House in Chicago, first major settlement house, first American woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize (1931), suffragist, helped establish American Civil Liberties Union (1920).
In 1993M. Joycelyn Elders, MD became the first African American and the second woman to be named U.S. Surgeon General. She held the military rank of Vice Admiral in the United State Navy in this position. Elders kept pushing boundaries while in office, advocating for robust sex education and studies on drug legalization—and drawing critics.
Little Rock Nine – First Day of Integration following Brown v Board of Ed. (1954)
Integration began in Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD public schools. The Little Rock Nine were a group of nine Black students who enrolled at formerly all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in September 1957. Their attendance at the school was a test of Brown v. Board of Education, a landmark 1954 Supreme Court ruling that declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional. On September 4, 1957, the first day of classes at Central High, Governor Orval Faubus called in the Arkansas National Guard to block the Black students’ entry into the high school. Later that month, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent in federal troops to escort the Little Rock Nine into the school. It drew national attention to the civil rights movement.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed into law the first civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. The new act established the Civil Rights Section of the Justice Department and empowered federal prosecutors to obtain court injunctions against interference with the right to vote. It also established a federal Civil Rights Commission with authority to investigate discriminatory conditions and recommend corrective measures. The final act was significantly weakened by the Senate Judiciary Committee, led by Democratic Senator, James Eastland, of Mississippi, representing the resounding lack of support for civil rights among Southern Democrats.
Mid-Autumn Moon Festival
Celebrating the end of the autumn harvest, this important festival is recognized across East and Southeast Asia. This three-day festival is marked by lighting lanterns, sharing meals with family, and partaking in public contests, games and social gatherings. In Mainland China, where the festival is celebrated on par with that of Chinese New Year, celebrants mark the festival by making and sharing traditional “mooncakes,” a rich pastry filled with sweet-bean, egg yolk, meat, or lotus-seed paste. In Chinese culture, the round shape of the mooncake symbolizes completeness and reunion, so the sharing and eating of them during the festivals symbolizes the completeness and unity of families.
Mae C. Jemison was the first Black American woman in space on board the space shuttle Endeavor. (1992)
Happy Birthday, Jesse Owens! (1913 – 1980) African American Olympic athlete Jesse Owens was born in Oakville, Alabama (as James Cleveland Owens). He won four medals in track and field at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, defeating Nazi athletes and disappointing Nazi leader Adolf Hitler.
Selective Service Act (1940)
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the law allowing Black people to enter all branches of the U.S. Military Service.
National Negro Convention (1830)
The Convention arose out of a question asked by a sixteen-year-old free Black teenager named Hezekiel Grice. Grice, troubled by "the hopelessness of contending against oppression in the United States," who wondered if Black people should be encouraged to emigrate, en mass, to Canada. Grice wrote to several Black leaders who approved his proposal for a ten-day convention to discuss the issue. The Convention was attended by forty Black people from nine states, including Bishop Richard Allen. From the meeting emerged a new organization, the "American Society of Free People of Colour for improving their condition in the United States; for purchasing lands; and for the establishment of a settlement in the Province of Canada," of which Allen was named president. As a result, although moving to Canada was encouraged, especially for Black people with children, the society also acknowledged the need to improve the lives of those who remained in the U.S.
SEPTEMBER EQUAL PAY DAYS
0.58 Cents on the Dollar
The average woman must work far into the next year to earn what the average man earns the previous year. Each category of women is recognized on their “Equal Pay Day”, which is delineated into sub-groups to articulate the day into the next year each group of women would have to work to earn as much as her white male counterpart for the same job in the previous year. In 2022, Native American Women’s Equal Pay Day is pushed out to November 30, in [previous years, it had been September 8th.
Moms’ Equal Pay Day - September 8th – 251 Days
Black Women’s Equal Pay Day – September 21st - 264 Days
If the gender wage gap were eliminated, the average woman would have enough additional money every year for:
• An entire additional year of childcare;
• One year of tuition and fees for a 4-year public university, or the full cost of tuition and fees for a 2-year college;
• More than 9 months of rent for the following year;
• 7 months of health insurance (premiums through employer-based plans);
• More than a year’s worth of food; OR
• Enough money to pay off their student loan debt in under 4 years
*Based on 2021 ACS Census data
Constitutional Convention of 1787 – Enactment of the Three Fifths Clause
The Constitution of the United States was signed, which allowed a male slave to count as three-fifths of a man in determining representation in the House of Representatives. The three-fifths clause was part of a series of compromises enacted by the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Other clauses prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territories and ended U.S. participation in the international slave trade in 1807. The post-Civil War 13th Amendment freed all enslaved people in the United States, the 14th amendment gave formerly enslaved people full citizenship, and the 15th Amendment granted Black men the right to vote. Unfortunately, despite these “compromises” and amendments, for the next 100 years until 1968 the passage of Jim Crow laws legalized racial segregation and the marginalization of African Americans. For example, “Black codes were strict local and state laws that detailed when, where and how formerly enslaved people could work, and for how much compensation. The codes appeared throughout the South as a legal way to put Black citizens into indentured servitude, to take voting rights away, to control where they lived and how they traveled and to seize children for labor purposes”. The impact of these “compromises” and Jim Crow laws, such as redlining and Black codes, is felt reverberating today in the form of institutionalized racism.
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law which was part of the Compromise of 1850. The act required that slaves be returned to their owners, even if they were in a free state. The act also made the federal government responsible for finding, returning, and trying escaped slaves. This 1850 act came after the original Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 which authorized local governments to seize and return escapees to their owners and imposed penalties on anyone who aided in their flight. Widespread resistance to the 1793 law led to the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, which added more provisions regarding runaways and levied even harsher punishments for interfering in their capture. The Fugitive Slave Acts were among the most controversial laws of the early 19th century. These same types of laws are being used today as the template for citizen-enforced abortion restrictions and bans.
25th – 27th
Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year)
Rosh Hashanah is a celebration, marking the creation of the world. The first two days of the Jewish new year, Tishrei 1 and 2, begin at sundown on the eve of Tishrei 1. Rosh Hashanah 2022 begins at sundown on September 25 and continues through nightfall on September 27. The celebration is marked by Candle lighting in the evenings, festive meals with sweet delicacies during the night and day, prayer services that include the sounding of the ram’s horn (shofar) on both mornings and desisting from creative work.
Meskel is a religious holiday in the Ethiopian Orthodox and Eritrean Orthodox churches that commemorates the discovery of the True Cross by the Roman Empress, Helena, in the fourth century.